Neurons are the basic building blocks of the brain.
The parts of a neuron are very similar to the parts of any other cell.
A neuron has a cell body, which contains a nucleus.
Extensions, which branch off the cell body, are called dendrites.
Dendrites receive messages from other neurons. The membrane between the dendrites and the cell body
is called the post-synaptic membrane.
On the other side of the neuron connected to the cell body, is the axon. The
axon sends messages to other neurons. The point at which the axon releases the neurotransmitters is the pre-synaptic
membrane. Also located at the axon terminal.
An axon is covered by the myelin sheath, which is a fatty cell layer wrapped around
the axon. This alos speeds up the rate at which neurotransmitters travel through the axon.
The neuron either fires or it doesn't. Also, intesity of a sensation doesn't determine how much,
or how fast a neuron fires.
A neuron can not fair immidieately after it has already fired, it must return to a state of polarity
before it can fire again.
To upset this polarity a threshold must be reached before a neuron can fire, thus the fire or non-firing
of a neuron.